By Geovanny Vicente Romero, Guest Blogger
In some ways Latin America has been a trailblazer when it comes to female leadership in politics. Many of the world’s first democratically elected women heads of state were in Latin American nations. In 2014, four females held the highest office in their countries: Michelle Bachelet in Chile; Dilma Rousseff in Brazil; Christina Fernández de Kirchner in Argentina and Laura Chinchilla in Costa Rica. But, as pointed out by the Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the OAS, Rita Hernández Bolaños, the region still has a long way to go before achieving gender equality.
In part due to courageous female leaders, many Latin American countries, starting with Argentina in 1991, implemented gender-based quota laws in the 1990s and 2000s. Today the region boasts some of the highest percentages of female lawmakers in all of the world. In Cuba and Bolivia parliaments are majority female and in Mexico, following recent elections in 2018, just under 50 percent of lawmakers are women1. In the United States, for comparison, just about a quarter of all lawmakers are females2.
But there are signs that the region is moving in the opposite direction. Whereas just five years ago there were four female heads of state, today there are none. In 2018 the region elected six male presidents, many who, like conservative President Jair Bolsonaro in Brazil, threaten women’s sexual and reproductive rights.
The old machista culture remains pervasive too. According to the World Bank, females in Latin America are seriously underrepresented in the labor force and earn on average 16 percent less than men3. Violence against women is higher in Latin America than anywhere else in the world4.
Women played a big part in the passing of the quota laws that allowed for high numbers of female members of congress today. Female legislators also have proven to be more supportive of bills involving women’s rights and those fighting gender-based violence and femicide5. At the OAS, and throughout all of Latin America, more female leadership is needed to combat issues like gender-based violence and bring the region closer to gender equality.
- “Women in national parliaments,” Inter-Parliamentary Union. November 1, 2018. http://archive.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm
- Desilver, Drew. “A record number of women will be serving in the new Congress,” Pew Research Center. December 18, 2018. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/12/18/record-number-women-in-congress/
- Tavares, Paula & Octaviano Canuto. “No women, no growth: The case for increasing women’s leadership in Latin America,” The World Bank. August 17, 2018. http://blogs.worldbank.org/latinamerica/no-women-no-growth-case-increasing-women-s-leadership-latin-america
- “From Commitment to Action: Policies to End Violence Against Women in Latin America and the Caribbean. United Nations Development Program. http://www.latinamerica.undp.org/content/dam/rblac/docs/Research%20and%20Publications/Empoderamiento%20de%20la%20Mujer/UNDP-RBLAC-ReportVCMEnglish.pdf
- “Latin America has embraced quotas for female political candidates,” The Economist. July 28, 2018. https://www.economist.com/the-americas/2018/07/28/latin-america-has-embraced-quotas-for-female-political-candidates